My family jokingly calls me “Bill Nye the Science Guy” for good reason- I can appreciate some good research and more importantly, scientific evidence that leads to RESULTS. I love results! I love working in my “lab” and making all sorts of natural goodness and therefore I go by Bill, Bill Nye. 😉
Today as I am doing some CEU’s (continuing education units) for my state licenses, I am doing one called, “Herbal Medication: An Evidence-Based Review.” (Don’t shut me off yet- this is important- I promise!). I want to knock out these units, but it was more important for me to stop and talk to you guys for a minute. So do me a favor and just read it, ok? 🙂
The article discusses some extremely important things you need to know if you live, or want to live, a natural, “crunchy”, “granola”-ish lifestyle. It talks about what makes one natural health product different from another. (Keep reading!) Here is why this is important: If you don’t know the quality of your product, you have no real way of knowing what you are taking into your body and/or how it may effect you based on what is or isn’t in the product!
So what’s your point, Bobbie-jo? Well my point is, if you are living naturally to avoid toxicity, you can’t just pick up something from a health store shop and think it is good for you just because it is there. It CAN hurt you.
Here is what the article says:
“The concentration of active ingredients in HMs [Herbal Medications], however, is affected by numerous factors, including [9,24,25,26]:
The correct identification of the botanical source
The presence of contaminants or substitution of the intended source for other plants of lower cost with potential toxicologic consequences
Growing conditions, including temperature, geography and time of harvest, and possible contamination with micro-organisms, heavy metals, pesticides, or prescription drugs
Collection of the appropriate plant part (e.g., leaves versus root)
Preparation of specimens (e.g., drying, grinding)
Laboratory processing (e.g., solvent used for extraction of active ingredients)
Formulation of the final product (e.g., liquid versus solid pill)
These processes vary considerably among manufacturers and influence product quality and concentration of active ingredients in the final product.”
Do you see how serious this is?? Especially if Joe Smohe from Idaho is making your products in his mom’s basement – and he could be!!!
Allow me to summarize in bold font: IF YOU DON’T KNOW WHAT YOU’RE USING AND FROM WHOM YOU ARE USING IT, YOU ARE PLAYING WITH FIRE.
To quote again from the article, “Toxicity may also occur as the result of adulteration in the composition of HMs. This may occur by contamination with toxic plants or molds due to improper selection or storage. Toxicity may also occur as the result of adulteration in the composition of HMs [Herbal Medications]. This may occur by contamination with toxic plants or molds due to improper selection or storage. Adulterations of the intended product may occur either accidentally or deliberately when unscrupulous suppliers replace the intended plant for a cheaper one.” (Emphasis added by me).
To summarize: Manufacturers are coming out of the wood work right now to capitalize on this natural living “trend” (and for many it is a trend). Such manufacturers are interested in making money, not making you healthy. They are treating your life like pocket change. It is proven that many suppliers are doing this, so what I say, I say with love. You better hope to God that your product was put together by scientists and doctors in a legitimate lab; scientists and doctors with medical degrees, pharmaceutical and physiological training and integrity, who keep all their practices and procedures out in the open for the public to be aware of. You better hope your company tests and retests their product and then sends it to multiple 3rd party testers to verify the purity of their product. Don’t take their word for it on a FB ad or fancy wording on the back of the bottle- go to the source.
Oh Bobbie-jo, isn’t that extreme? … Well, I don’t know; how much do you like your life?
If you think the FDA is doing this checking for you in the natural field, you’re wrong. If you think most of these companies out there are doing it for you, you’re wrong. When shady suppliers pop up, all sorts of toxicity has been found – lots of heavy metals, mold, synthetic products AND SYNTHETIC DRUGS have been found and proven (by real studies- not snoops.com hahahah).
What I say, I truly say with love and care for everyone. I want to help people live their best lives possible, to empower people and to speak the truth with love into people’s lives.
I have researched many different herbal/wellness/natural companies. There is only one I trust. I trust them so much that I modified my career for the time being so that I can help you all. I have made my business natural living so that I can show you a way to avoid, to the best of our ability, the pitfalls of this “microwave it and make it fast and cheap!” society we live in. And do I get paid to help? Absolutely. I have to! Just like in the counseling office, or teachers in the classroom, or police officers out protecting people. We have to eat to live and our families need a roof over their heads. Just like you get paid to do your job. There is no shame in providing for your family through a service or product you wholeheartedly believe in. Please don’t run blindly into the natural world. A lot of companies are dimming their lights so that you can’t immediately see what they are doing.
“These examples illustrate the need for an increased public and professional awareness, the implementation of appropriate quality control and exhaustive testing of supplies, adherence by the manufacturers to good manufacturing practices, and selection of products manufactured by reputable companies.” (Bold emphasis was added by me- the rest is from the article 🙂 )
Not sharing the truth when I can- to me would be like seeing someone getting hurt and not rushing over to help. Just wrong.
Below are the hundreds of resources used by the article I referenced 😉
MedWatch: The FDA Safety Information and Adverse Event Reporting Program
MedEffect Canada: Adverse Reaction and Medical Device Problem Reporting
Natural Medicines Watch: Adverse Event Reporting Form
Complete for Credit
1. National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health. What is Complementary and Alternative Medicine? Available at https://nccih.nih.gov/health/integrative-health. Last accessed June 6, 2016.
2. Health Canada. About Natural Health Product Regulation in Canada. Available at http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/dhp-mps/prodnatur/about-apropos/index-eng.php. Last accessed June 6, 2016.
3. United States Congress, 103rd Congress. Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994: Public Law 103-417. Available at http://ods.od.nih.gov/about/dshea_wording.aspx. Last accessed June 6, 2016.
4. National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health. Use of Complementary Health Approaches in the U.S. Available at https://nccih.nih.gov/research/statistics/NHIS/2012/key-findings. Last accessed June 6, 2016.
5. Barnes PM, Bloom B, Nahin RL. Complementary and alternative medicine use among adults and children: United States, 2007. Natl Health Stat Report. 2008;(12):1-23.
6. Ipsos Reid. Natural Health Product Tracking Survey, 2010 Final Report. Available at http://epe.lac-bac.gc.ca/100/200/301/pwgsc-tpsgc/por-ef/health/2011/135-09/report.pdf. Last accessed June 6, 2016.
7. Chao MT, Wade C, Kronenberg F. Disclosure of complementary and alternative medicine to conventional medical providers: variation by race/ethnicity and type of CAM. J Natl Med Assoc. 2008;100(1):1341-1349.
8. Barnes PM, Powell-Griner E, McFann K, Nahin RL. Complementary and alternative medicine use among adults: United States, 2002. Adv Data. 2004;(343):1-19.
9. Robinson A, McGrail MR. Disclosure of CAM use to medical practitioners: a review of qualitative and quantitative studies. Complement Ther Med. 2004;12(2-3):90-98.
10. Eisenberg DM, Kessler RC, Van Rompay MI, et al. Perceptions about complementary therapies relative to conventional therapies among adults who use both: results from a national survey. Ann Intern Med. 2001;135:344-351.
11. Chan JM, Elkin EP, Silva SJ, Broering JM, Latini DM, Carroll PR. Total and specific complementary and alternative medicine use in a large cohort of men with prostate cancer. Urology. 2005;66(6):1223-1228.
12. Cooper EL. Drug discovery, CAM and natural products. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2004;1(3):215-217.
13. Koehn FE, Carter GT. The evolving role of natural products in drug discovery. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2005;4(3):206-220.
14. Kingston DGI. Modern natural products drug discovery and its relevance to biodiversity conservation. J Natl Prod. 2011;74(3): 496-511.
15. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Food: Dietary Supplements. Available at http://www.fda.gov/Food/DietarySupplements/default.htm. Last accessed June 6, 2016.
16. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Final Rule Declaring Dietary Supplements Containing Ephedrine Alkaloids Adulterated Because They Present an Unreasonable Risk; Small Entity Compliance Guide. Available at http://www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/ucm072997.htm. Last accessed June 6, 2016.
17. Health Canada. Natural Health Products Regulations. Available at http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/dhp-mps/prodnatur/about-apropos/index-eng.php. Last accessed June 6, 2016.
18. McHughes M, Timmermann BN. A review of the use of CAM therapy and the sources of accurate and reliable information.J Manag Care Pharm. 2005;11(8):695-703.
19. Brown CM, Barner JC, Shah S. Community pharmacists’ actions when patients use complementary and alternative therapies with medications. J Am Pharm Assoc. 2005;45(1):41-47.
20. Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin. Results of Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin (DTB) Survey on Herbal Medicines. Available at http://dtb.bmj.com/site/about/DTB_survey_on_herbal_medicines.pdf. Last accessed June 9, 2016.
21. Federation of State Medical Boards of the United States. Model Guidelines for the Use of Complementary and Alternative Therapies in Medical Practice. Available at http://www.fsmb.org/Media/Default/PDF/FSMB/Advocacy/2002_grpol_Complementary_Alternative_Therapies.pdf. Last accessed June 9, 2016.
22. Pachter LM. Culture and clinical care: folk illness beliefs and behaviors and their implications for health care delivery. JAMA. 1994;271(9):690-694.
23. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Federal Register Final Rule: Current Good Manufacturing Practice in Manufacturing, Packaging, Labeling, or Holding Operations for Dietary Supplements. Available at https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2007-06-25/html/07-3039.htm. Last accessed June 9, 2016.
24. Dreskin SC. A prescription drug packaged in China and sold as an ethnic remedy. JAMA. 2000;283(18):2393.
25. Ng TH, Chan YW, Yu YL, et al. Encephalopathy and neuropathy following ingestion of Chinese herbal broth containing podophyllin. J Neurol Sci. 1991;101(1):107-113.
26. Tomlinson B, Chan TY, Chan JC, Crichtley JA, But PP. Toxicity of complementary therapies: an eastern perspective. J ClinPharmacol. 2000;40(5):451-456.
27. Guengerich FP. Cytochrome P450, drugs, and diseases. Mol Interv. 2003;3(4):194-204.
28. Adler AJ, Holub BJ. Effect of garlic and fish-oil supplementation on serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in hypercholesterolemic men. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997;65(2):445-450.
29. Berthold HK, Sudhop T, von Bergmann K. Effect of a garlic oil preparation on serum lipoproteins and cholesterol metabolism: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 1998;279(23):1900-1902.
30. Lash JP, Cardoso LR, Mesler PM, Walczak DA, Pollak R. The effect of garlic on hypercholesterolemia in renal transplant patients. Transplant Proc. 1998;30(1):189-191.
31. Natural Medicines. Foods, Herbs, and Supplements. Available at https://naturalmedicines.therapeuticresearch.com/databases/food,-herbs-supplements.aspx. Last accessed June 9, 2016.
32. Zlotta AR, Teillac P, Raynaud JP, Schulman CC. Evaluation of male sexual function in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) treated with a phytotherapeutic agent (Permixon), Tamsulosin or Finasteride. Eur Urol. 2005;48(2):269-276.
33. Hare JT, Elliot DP. Grapefruit juice and potential drug interactions. Consult Pharm. 2003;18(5):466-472.
34. Madabushi R, Frank B, Drewelow B, Derendorf H, Butterweck V. Hyperforin in St. John’s wort drug interactions. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2006;62(3):225-233.
35. Ebadi MS. Food-drug interactions. In: Ebadi MS. Pharmacodynamic Basis of Herbal Medicine. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 2001: 107-114.
36. Budzinski JW, Foster BC, Vandenhoek S, Arnason JT. An in vitro evaluation of human cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibition by selected commercial herbal extracts and tinctures. Phytomedicine. 2000;7(4):273-282.
37. Meredith MJ. Herbal nutriceuticals: a primer for dentists and dental hygienists. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2001;2(2):1-24.
38. Ruschitzka F, Meier PJ, Turina M, Lüscher TF, Noll G. Acute heart transplant rejection due to Saint John’s wort. Lancet. 2000;355(9203):548-549.
39. Markowitz JS, Donovan JL, DeVane CL, et al. Effect of St. John’s wort on drug metabolism by induction of cytochrome P450 3A4 enzyme. JAMA. 2003;290(11):1500-1504.
40. Szegedi A, Kohnen R, Dienel A, Kieser M. Acute treatment of moderate to severe depression with hypericum extract WS 5570 (St. John’s wort): randomized controlled double-blind non-inferiority trial versus paroxetine. BMJ. 2005;330(7494):759.
41. Singh YN. Potential for interaction of kava and St. John’s wort with drugs. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005;100(1-2):108-113.
42. Yoshitake T, Iizuka R, Yoshitake S, et al. Hypericum perforatum L. (St. John’s wort) preferentially increases extracellular dopamine levels in the rat prefrontral cortex. Br J Pharmacol. 2004;142(3):414-418.
43. Demott K. St. John’s wort tied to serotonin syndrome. Clin Psychiatry News. 1998;26(3):28-29.
44. Lança AJ. Adrenergic receptor agonists. In: Kalant H, Grant D, Mitchell J (eds). Principles of Medical Pharmacology. 7th ed. Toronto: Saunders Canada; 2007:137-155.
45. Lança AJ. Functional and neurochemical organization of the central nervous system. In: Kalant H, Grant D, Mitchell J (eds). Principles of Medical Pharmacology. 7th ed. Toronto, Canada: Saunders Canada; 2007: 187-210.
46. Warsh JJ, Li PP. Antidepressant and mood-stabilizing agents. In: Kalant H, Grant D, Mitchell J (eds). Principles of Medical Pharmacology. 7th ed. Toronto: Saunders Canada; 2007: 316-333.
47. Casper HH, Alstad AD, Tacke DB, Johnson LJ, Lloyd WE. Evaluation of vitamin K3 feed additive for prevention of sweet clover disease. J Vet Diagn Invest. 1989;1(2):116-119.
48. Heck AM, DeWitt BA, Lukes AL. Potential interactions between alternative therapies and warfarin. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2000;57(13):1221-1227.
49. Rotblatt M, Ziment I. Evidence-Based Herbal Medicine. Philadelphia, PA: Hanley & Belfus; 2002.
50. Koch E. Inhibition of platelet activating factor (PAF)-induced aggregation of human thrombocytes by ginkgolides: considerations on possible bleeding complications after oral intake of Ginkgo biloba extracts. Phytomedicine. 2005;12(1-2):10-16.
51. Izzo AA, Di Carlo G, Borrelli F, Ernst E. Cardiovascular pharmacotherapy and herbal medicines: the risk of drug interaction.Int J Cardiol. 2005;98(1):1-14.
52. Johnson J, Tanner A. Postmarketing surveillance: curriculum for the clinical pharmacologist. Part I: postmarketing surveillance within the continuum of the drug approval process. J Clin Pharmacol. 1993;33(10):904-911.
53. Stricker BH, Psaty BM. Detection, verification, and quantification of adverse drug reactions. BMJ. 2004;329(7456):44-47.
54. Natural Medicines. Frequently Asked Questions. Available at http://naturaldatabase.therapeuticresearch.com/content.aspx?page=faq&xsl=generic&popup=1. Last accessed June 17, 2016.
55. Lewis JH, Ahmed M, Shobassy A, Palese C. Drug-induced liver disease. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2006;22(3):223-233.
56. Castot A, Larrey D. Hepatitis observed during a treatment with a drug or a tea containing Wild Germander. Evaluation of 26 cases reported to the Regional Centers of Pharmacovigilance [Article in French]. Gastroenterol Clin Biol. 1992;16(12):916-922.
57. Laliberté L, Villeneuve JP. Hepatitis after the use of germander, an herbal remedy. CMAJ. 1996;154(11):1689-1692.
58. De Berardinis V, Moulis C, Maurice M, et al. Human microsomal epoxide hydrolase is the target of germander-induced autoantibodies on the surface of human hepatocytes. Mol Pharmacol. 2000;58(3):542-551.
59. Slifman NR, Obermeyer WR, Aloi BK, et al. Contamination of botanical dietary supplements by Digitalis lanata. N Engl J Med. 1998;339(12):806-811.
60. Nortier JL, Martinez MC, Schmeiser HH, et al. Urothelial carcinoma associated with the use of a Chinese herb (Aristocholia fangchi). N Engl J Med. 2000;342(23):1686-1692.
61. Keane FM, Munn SE, du Vivier AW, Taylor NF, Higgins EM. Analysis of Chinese herbal creams prescribed for dermatological conditions. BMJ. 1999;318(7183):563-564.
62. Bogusz MJ, al Tufail M, Hassan H. How natural are “natural herbal remedies”? A Saudi perspective. Adverse Drug React Toxicol Rev. 2002;21(4):219-229.
63. Wilt T, Ishani A, Mac Donald R. Serenoa repens for benign prostatic hyperplasia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;(3):CD001423.
64. Lewith G, Verhoef M, Koithan M, Zick SM. Developing CAM research capacity for complementary medicine. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2006;3(2):283-289.
65. American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. FY 2016 Written Testimony Submitted by ASPET to LHHS. Available at https://www.aspet.org/FY_2016_Written_Testimony/. Last accessed June 9, 2016.
66. Melethil S. Proposed rule: current good manufacturing practice in manufacturing, packing, or holding dietary ingredients and dietary supplements. Life Sci. 2006;78(18):2049-2053.
67. Wolsko PM, Solondz DK, Phillips RS, Schachter SC, Eisenberg DM. Lack of herbal supplement characterization in published randomized controlled trials. Am J Med. 2005;118(10):1087-1093.
68. Draves AH, Walker SE. Determination of hypericin and pseudohypericin in pharmaceutical preparations by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl. 2000;749(1):57-66.
69. Krochmal R, Hardy M, Bowerman S, et al. Phytochemical assays of commercial botanical dietary supplements. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2004;1(3):305-313.
70. Sander LC, Sharpless KE, Wise SA. Dietary supplement standard reference materials. Life Sci. 2006;78(18):2044-2048.
71. Srinivasan VS. Challenges and scientific issues in the standardization of botanical and their preparations. United States Pharmacopeia’s dietary supplement verification program: a public health program. Life Sci. 2006;78(18):2039-2043.
72. De Smet PA. Herbal medicine in Europe: relaxing regulatory standards. N Engl J Med. 2005;352(12):1176-1178.
73. Berges RR, Kassen A, Senge T. Treatment of symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia with beta-sitosterol: an 18 month follow-up. BJU Int. 2000;85(7):842-846.
74. Berges RR, Windeler J, Trampisch HJ, Senge T. Randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial of beta-sitosterol in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Beta-sitosterol Study Group. Lancet. 1995;345(8964):1529-1532.
75. LexiComp Online. Available at http://online.lexi.com. Last accessed June 9, 2016.
76. Habib FK, Ross M, Ho CK, Lyons V, Chapman K. Serenoa repens (Permixon) inhibits the 5alpha-reductase activity of human prostate cancer cell lines without interfering with PSA expression. Int J Cancer. 2005;114(2):190-194.
77. Carraro JC, Raynaud JP, Koch G, et al. Comparison of phytotherapy (Permixon) with finasteride in the treatment of benign prostate hyperplasia: a randomized international study of 1,098 patients. Prostate. 1996;29(4):231-240.
78. Délos S, Carsol JL, Ghazarossian E, Raynaud JP, Martin PM. Testosterone metabolism in primary cultures of human prostate epithelial cells and fibroblast. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 1995;55(3-4):375-383.
79. Ravenna L, Di Silverio F, Russo MA, et al. Effects of the lipidosterolic extract of Serenoa repens (Permixon) on human prostatic cell lines. Prostate. 1996;29(4):219-230.
80. Goepel M, Hecker U, Krege S, Rübben H, Michel MC. Saw palmetto extracts potently and noncompetitively inhibit human alpha1-adrenoceptors in vitro. Prostate. 1999;38(3):208-215.
81. Bayne CW, Ross M, Donnelly F, Habib FK. The selectivity and specificity of the actions of the lipido-sterolic extract of Serenoa repens (Permixon) on the prostrate. J Urol. 2000;164(3 pt 1):876-881.
82. Paubert-Braquet M, Mencia Huerta JM, Cousse H, Braquet P. Effect of the lipidic lipidosterolic extract of Serenoa repens (Permixon) on the ionophore A23187-stimulated production of leukotriene B4 (LTB4) from human polymorphonuclear neutrophils. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 1997;57(3):299-304.
83. Vacherot F, Azzouz M, Gil-Diez-De-Medina S, et al. Induction of apoptosis and inhibition of cell proliferation by the lipido-sterolic extract of Serenoa repens (LSESr, Permixon) in benign prostatic hyperplasia. Prostate. 2000;45(3):259-266.
84. Tacklind J, MacDonald R, Rutks I, Wilt TJ. Serenoa repens for benign prostatic hyperplasia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009;(2):CD001423.
85. Tacklind J, Macdonald R, Rutks I, Stanke JU, Wilt TJ. Serenoa repens for benign prostatic hyperplasia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;12:CD001423.
86. Boyle P, Robertson C, Lowe F, Roehrborn C. Meta-analysis of clinical trials of permixon in the treatment of symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia. Urology. 2000;55(4):533-539.
87. Boyle P, Robertson C, Lowe F, Roehrborn C. Updated meta-analysis of clinical trials of Serenoa repens extract in the treatment of symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia. BJU Int. 2004;93(6):751-756.
88. Debruyne F, Boyle P, Calais Da Silva F, et al. Evaluation of the clinical benefit of permixon and tamsulosin in severe BPH patients —PERMAL study subset analysis. Eur Urol. 2004;45(6):773-779.
89. Debruyne F, Koch G, Boyle P, et al. Comparison of a phytotherapeutic agent (Permixon) with an alpha-blocker (Tamsulosin) in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia: a 1-year randomized international study. Eur Urol. 2002;41(5):497-506.
90. Djavan B, Fong YK, Chaudry A, et al. Progression delay in men with mild symptoms of bladder outlet obstruction: a comparative study of phytotherapy and watchful waiting. World J Urol. 2005;23(4):253-256.
91. Fong YK, Milani S, Djavan B. Role of phytotherapy in men with lower urinary tract symptoms. Cur Opin Urol. 2005;15(1):45-48.
92. Gerber GS. Saw palmetto for the treatment of men with lower urinary tract symptoms. J Urol. 2000;163(5):1408-1412.
93. Marks LS, Partin AW, Epstein JI, et al. Effects of a saw palmetto herbal blend in men with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia. J Urol. 2000;163(5):1451-1456.
94. Bent S, Kane C, Shinohara K, et al. Saw palmetto for benign prostatic hyperplasia. N Engl J Med. 2006;354(6):557-566.
95. Gordon AE, Shaughnessy AF. Saw palmetto for prostate disorders. Am Fam Physician. 2003;67(6):1281-1283.
96. Slater MD, Lauer C, Gidley-Baird A, Barden JA. Markers for the development of early prostate cancer. J Pathol. 2003;199(3): 368-77.
97. Kaplan SA, Volpe MA, Te AE. A prospective, 1-year trial using saw palmetto versus finasteride in the treatment of category III prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome. J Urol. 2004;171(1):284-288.
98. Comhaire F, Mahmoud A. Preventing diseases of the prostate in the elderly using hormones and nutriceuticals. Aging Male. 2004;7(2):155-169.
99. Veltri RW, Marks LS, Miller MC, et al. Saw palmetto alters nuclear measurements reflecting DNA content in men with symptomatic BPH: evidence for a possible molecular mechanism. Urology. 2002;60(4):617-622.
100. Avins AL, Bent S, Staccone S, et al. A detailed safety assessment of a saw palmetto extract. Complement Ther Med. 2008;16(3): 147-154.
101. Cheema P, El-Mefty O, Jazieh AR. Intraoperative hemorrhage associated with the use of extract of saw palmetto herb: a case report and review of the literature. J Intern Med. 2001;250(2):167-169.
102. De Smet PA, Bonsel G, Van der Kuy A, et al. Introduction to the pharmacoeconomics of herbal medicines. Pharmacoeconomics. 2000;18(1):1-7.
103. Nathan P. The experimental and clinical pharmacology of St. John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum L.). Mol Psychiatry. 1999;4(4):333-338.
104. Chatterjee SS, Nöldner M, Koch E, Erdelmeier C. Antidepressant activity of Hypericum perforatum and hyperforin: the neglected possibility. Pharmacopsychiatry. 1998;31(suppl 1):7-15.
105. Laakmann G, Schüle C, Baghai T, Kieser M. St. John’s wort in mild to moderate depression: the relevance of hyperforin for the clinical efficacy. Pharmacopsychiatry. 1998;31(suppl 1):54-59.
106. Barnes J, Anderson LA, Phillipson JD. St. John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum L.): a review of its chemistry, pharmacology, and clinical properties. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2001;53(5):583-600.
107. Greeson JM, Sanford B, Monti DA. St. John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum): a review of current pharmacological, toxicological, and clinical literature. Psychopharmacology(Berl). 2001;153(4):402-414.
108. Kerb R, Brockmöller J, Staffeldt B, Ploch M, Roots I. Single-dose and steady-state pharmacokinetics of hypericin and pseudohypericin. Antimicrob Agents Chemoter. 1996;40(9):2087-2093.
109. Teufel-Meyer R, Gleitz J. Effect of long-term administration of Hypericum extracts on the affinity and density of central serotonergic 5-HT1 A and 5-HT2 A receptors. Pharmacopsychiatry. 1997;30(suppl 2):113-116.
110. Thompson C. Onset of action of antidepressants: results of different analyses. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2002;17(suppl 1):S27-S32.
111. Field HL, Monti DA, Greeson JM, Kunkel EJ. St. John’s wort. Int J Psychiatry Med. 2000;30(3):203-219.
112. Klemow KM, Bilbow E, Grasso D, Jones K, McDermott J, Pape E. Medicinal attributes of St. John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum). In: Packer L, Ong CN, Halliwell B (eds). Herbal and Traditional Medicine. Molecular Aspects of Health. New York, NY: Marcel Dekker Publisher; 2004: 757-780.
113. Schempp CM, Pelz K, Wittmer A, Schöpf E, Simon JC. Antibacterial activity of hyperforin from St. John’s wort, against multiresistant Staphylococcus aureus and gram-positive bacteria. Lancet. 1999;353(9170):2129.
114. Schempp CM, Windeck T, Hezel S, Simon JC. Topical treatment of atopic dermatitis with St. John’s wort cream: a randomized, placebo controlled, double blind half-side comparison. Phytomedicine. 2003;10(suppl 4):31-37.
115. Darbinian-Sarkissian N, Darbinyan A, Otte J, et al. p27(SJ), a novel protein in St. John’s wort, that suppresses expression of HIV-1 genome. Gene Ther. 2006;13(4):288-295.
116. Gulick RM, McAuliffe V, Holden-Wiltse J, et al. Phase I studies of hypericin, the active compound in St. John’s wort, as an antiretroviral agent in HIV-infected adults: AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocols 150 and 258. Ann Intern Med. 1999;130(6):510-514.
117. Henderson L, Yue QY, Bergquist C, Gerden B, Arlett P. St. John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum): drug interactions and clinical outcomes. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2002;54(4):349-356.
118. Fox FE, Niu Z, Tobia A, Rook AH. Photoactivated hypericin is an anti-proliferative agent that induces a high rate of apoptotic death of normal, transformed, and malignant T lymphocytes: implications for the treatment of cutaneous lymphoproliferative and inflammatory disorders. J Invest Dermatol. 1998;111(2):327-332.
119. Schempp CM, Müller KA, Winghofer B, Schöpf E, Simon JC. St. John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum L.): a plant with relevance for dermatology [Article in German]. Hautarzt. 2002;53(5):316-321.
120. Linde K, Mulrow CD, Berner M, Egger M. St. John’s wort for depression. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005;(2):CD000448.
121. Hypericum Depression Trial Study Group. Effect of Hypericum perforatum (St. John’s wort) in major depressive disorder: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2002;287(14):1807-1814.
122. Shelton RC, Keller MB, Gelenberg AJ, et al. Effectiveness of St. John’s wort in major depression: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2001;285(15):1978-1986.
123. Linde K, Berner MM, Kriston L. St. John’s wort for major depression. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008;(4):CD000448.
124. Ernst E. The risk-benefit profile of commonly used herbal therapies: ginkgo, St. John’s wort, ginseng, echinacea, saw palmetto, and kava. Ann Intern Med. 2002;136(1):42-53.
125. Lawvere S, Mahoney MC. St. John’s wort. Am Fam Physician. 2005;72(11):2249-2254.
126. Linde K, Ramirez G, Mulrow CD, Pauls A, Weidenhammer W, Melchart D. St. John’s wort for depression: an overview and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. BMJ. 1996;313(7052):253-258.
127. Stevinson C, Ernst E. Safety of Hypericum in patients with depression: a comparison with conventional antidepressants. CNSDrugs. 1999;11(2):125-132.
128. Brockmöller J, Reum T, Bauer S, Kerb R, Hübner WD, Roots I. Hypericin and pseudohypericin: pharmacokinetics and effects on photosensitivity in humans. Pharmacopsychiatry. 1997;30(suppl 2):94-101.
129. Schulz V. Incidence and clinical relevance of interactions and side-effects of Hypericum preparations [Article in German]. Praxis. 2000;89(50):2131-2140.
130. Philp RB. Herbal-Drug Interactions and Adverse Effects: An Evidence-Based Quick Reference Guide. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Professional; 2003.
131. Moretti ME, Maxson A, Hanna F, Koren G. Evaluating the safety of St. John’s wort in human pregnancy. Reprod Toxicol. 2009;28(1):96-99.
132. Christen Y. Ginkgo biloba: from traditional medicine to molecular biology. In: Packer L, Ong CN, Halliwell B (eds). Herbal and Traditional Medicine: Molecular Aspects of Health. New York, NY: Marcel Dekker Publisher; 2004: 145-164.
133. Kajiyama Y, Fujii K, Takeuchi H, Manabe Y. Ginkgo seed poisoning. Pediatrics. 2002;109(2):325-327.
134. Bastianetto S, Ramassamy C, Doré S, Christen Y, Poirier J, Quirion R. The Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb761) protects hippocampal neurons against cell death induced by beta-amiloid. Eur J Neurosci. 2000;12(6):1882-1890.
135. Christen Y, Maixent JM. What is Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761? An overview from molecular biology to clinical medicine.Cell Mol Biol. 2002;48(6):601-611.
136. Amri H, Drieu K, Papadopoulos V. Ex vivo regulation of adrenal cortical cell steroid and protein synthesis, in response to adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation, by the Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 and isolated ginkgolide B. Endocrinology. 1997;138(12):5415-5426.
137. Huguet F, Tarrade T. Alpha 2-adrenoceptor changes during cerebral ageing: the effect of Ginkgo biloba extract. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1992;44(1):24-27.
138. Huguet F, Drieu K, Piriou A. Decreased cerebral 5-HT1A receptors during ageing: reversal by Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761).J Pharm Pharmacol. 1994;46(4):316-318.
139. Zhu L, Gao J, Wang Y, Zhao XN, Zhang ZX. Neuron degeneration induced by verapamil and attenuated by EGb761. J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol. 1997;8(4):301-314.
140. Itil TM, Eralp E, Ahmed I, Kunitz A, Itil KZ. The pharmacological effects of ginkgo biloba, a plant extract, on the brain of dementia patients in comparison with tacrine. Psychopharmacol Bull. 1998;34(3):391-397.
141. Kanowski S, Hoerr R. Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 in dementia: intent-to-treat analyses of a 24-week, multi-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial. Pharmacopsychiatry. 2003;36(6):297-303.
142. Kurz A, Van Baelen B. Ginkgo biloba compared with cholinesterase inhibitors in the treatment of dementia: a review based on meta-analyses by the Cochrane collaboration. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2004;18(2):217-226.
143. Evans JG, Wilcock G, Birks J. Evidence-based pharmacotherapy of Alzheimer’s disease. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2004;7(3): 351-369.
144. Mix JA, Crews WD Jr. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of Ginkgo biloba extracft EGb 761 in a sample of cognitively intact older adults: neuropsychological findings. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2002;17(6):267-277.
145. Birks J, Grimley EV, Van Dongen M. Ginkgo biloba for cognitive impairment and dementia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;(4):CD003120.
146. Birks J, Grimley EJ. Ginkgo biloba for cognitive impairment and dementia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007;(2):CD003120.
147. Birks J, Grimley EJ. Ginkgo biloba for cognitive impairment and dementia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009;(1):CD003120.
148. Hopfenmüller W. Evidence for a therapeutic effect of Ginkgo biloba special extract: meta-analysis of 11 clinical studies in patients with cerebrovascular insufficiency in old age. Arzneimittelforschung. 1994;44(9):1005-1013.
149. Kleijnen J, Knipschild P. Ginkgo biloba for cerebral insufficiency. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1992;34(4):352-358.
150. Muir AH, Robb R, McLaren M, Daly F, Belch JJ. The use of ginkgo biloba in Raynaud’s disease: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Vasc Med. 2002;7(4):265-267.
151. Jacoby D, Mohler ER. Drug treatment in intermittent claudication. Drugs. 2004;64(15):1657-1670.
152. Gardner CD, Taylor-Piliae RE, Kiazand A, Nicholus J, Rigby AJ, Farquhar JW. Effect of Ginkgo biloba (EGb 761) on treadmill walking time among adults with peripheral artery disease: a randomized clinical trial. J Cardiopulm Rehabil Prev. 2008;28(4): 258-265.
153. Fessenden JM, Wittenborn W, Clarke L. Ginkgo biloba: a case report of herbal medicine and bleeding postoperatively from a laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Am Surg. 2001;67(1):33-35.
154. DeFeudis FV. Ginkgo Biloba Extract (EGb 761): From Chemistry to Clinic. Wiesbaden: Ullstein Medical; 1998.
155. Attele AS, Zhou YP, Xie JT, et al. Antidiabetic effects of Panax ginseng berry extract and the identification of an effective component. Diabetes. 2002;51(6):1851-1858.
156. Chung AS, Cho KJ, Park JD. Pharmacological and physiological effects of ginseng. In: Packer L, Ong CN, Halliwell B (eds).Herbal and Traditional Medicine: Molecular Aspects of Health. New York, NY: Marcel Dekker Publisher; 2004: 517-536.
157. Liu JP, Zhang M, Wang WY, Grimsgaard S. Chinese herbal medicines for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004;(3):CD003642.
158. Kudo K, Tachikawa H, Kashimoto T, Takahashi E. Properties of ginseng saponin inhibition of catecholamine secretion in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. Eur J Pharmacol. 1998;341(2-3):139-144.
159. Vogler BK, Pittler MH, Ernst E. The efficacy of ginseng: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1999;55(8):567-575.
160. Van Kampen J, Robertson H, Hagg T, Drobitch R. Neuroprotective actions of the ginseng extract G115 in two rodent models of Parkinson’s disease. Exp Neurol. 2003;184(1):521-529.
161. Vuksan V, Sievenpiper JL, Koo VY, et al. American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) reduces postprandial glycemia in nondiabetic subjects and subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Arch Intern Med. 2000;160(7):1009-1013.
162. Xie JT, Wu JA, Mehendale S, Aung HH, Yuan CS. Anti-hyperglycemic effect of the polysaccharides fraction from American ginseng berry extract in ob/ob mice. Phytomedicine. 2004;11(2-3):182-187.
163. Spinas GA, Laffranchi R, Francoys I, David I, Richter C, Reinecke M. The early phase of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion requires nitric oxide. Diabetologia. 1998;41(3):292-299.
164. Kim ND, Kang SY, Schini VB. Ginsenosides evoke endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation of the rat aorta. Gen Pharmacol. 1994;25(6):1071-1077.
165. Teng CM, Kuo SC, Ko FN, et al. Antiplatelet actions of panaxynol and ginsenosides isolated from ginseng. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1989;990(3):315-320.
166. Shin JY, Song JY, Yun YS, Yang HO, Rhee DK, Pyo S. Immunostimulating effects of acidic polysaccharides extract of Panax ginseng on macrophage function. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2002;24(3):469-482.
167. Yuan CS, Wei G, Dey L, et al. Brief communication: American ginseng reduces warfarin’s effect in healthy patients: a randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med. 2004;141(1):23-27.
168. Koren G, Randor S, Martin S, Danneman D. Maternal ginseng use associated with neonatal androgenization. JAMA. 1990;264(22):2866.
169. Awang DVC. Maternal use of ginseng and neonatal androgenization. JAMA. 1991;266(3):363.
170. Waller DP, Martin AM, Farnsworth NR, Awang DV. Lack of androgenicity of Siberian ginseng. JAMA. 1992;267(17):2329.
171. Vohra S, Johnston BC, Laycock KL, et al. Safety and tolerability of North American ginseng extract in the treatment of pediatric upper respiratory tract infection: a phase II randomized, controlled trial of 2 dosing schedules. Pediatrics. 2008;122(2):e402-e410.
172. Blumenthal M, Goldberg A, Brinckmann J. Herbal Medicine: Expanded Commission E Monographs. Newton, MA: Integrative Medicines Communications; 2000.
173. Schoop R, Klein P, Suter A, Johnston SL. Echinacea in the prevention of induced rhinovirus colds: a meta-analysis. Clin Ther. 2006;28(2):174-183.
174. Pellati F, Benvenuti S, Melegari M, Lasseigne T. Variability in the composition of anti-oxidant compounds in Echinacea species by HPLC. Phytochem Anal. 2005;16(2):77-85.
175. Müller-Jakic B, Breu W, Pröbstle A, Redl K, Greger H, Bauer R. In vitro inhibition of cyclooxygenase and 5-lypoxygenase by alkamides from Echinacea and Achillea species. Planta Med. 1994;60(1):37-40.
176. Hinz B, Woelkart K, Bauer R. Alkamides from Echinacea inhibit cyclooxygenase-2 activity in human neuroglioma cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;360(2):441-446.
177. Gilroy CM, Steiner JF, Byers T, Shapiro H, Georgian W. Echinacea and truth in labeling. Arch Intern Med. 2003;163(6):699-704.
178. Caruso TJ, Gwaltney JM Jr. Treatment of the common cold with echinacea: a structured review. Clin Infect Dis. 2005;40(6): 807-810.
179. Karsch-Völk M, Barrett B, Kiefer D, Bauer R, Ardjomand-Woelkart K, Linde K. Echinacea for preventing and treating the common cold. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;(2):CD000530.
180. Sperber SJ, Shah LP, Gilbert RD, Ritchey TW, Monto AS. Echinacea purpurea for prevention of experimental rhinovirus colds. Clin Infect Dis. 2004;38(10):1367-1371.
181. Turner RB, Bauer R, Woelkart K, Hulsey TC, Gangemi JD. An evaluation of Echinacea angustifolia in experimental rhinovirus infections. N Engl J Med. 2005;353(4):341-348.
182. Turner RB, Riker DK, Gangemi JD. Ineffectiveness of echinacea for prevention of experimental rhinovirus colds. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2000;44(6):1708-1709.
183. Taylor JA, Weber W, Standish L, et al. Efficacy and safety of echinacea in treating upper respiratory tract infections in children: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2003;290(21):2824-2830.
184. Mullins RJ. Echinacea-associated anaphylaxis. Med J Aust. 1998;168(4):170-171.
185. Gallo M, Sarkar M, Au W, et al. Pregnancy outcomes following gestational exposure to echinacea: a prospective controlled study. Arch Intern Med. 2000;160(20):3141-3143.
186. Schulz V, Hänsel R, Tyler VE, Blumenthal M. Rational Phytotherapy: A Physician’s Guide to Herbal Medicine. 5th ed. New York, NY: Springer; 2004.
187. Holm E, Staedt U, Heep J, et al. The action profile of D,L-kavain: cerebral sites and sleep-wakefulness-rhythm in animals. [Article in German]. Arzneimittelforschung. 1991;41(7):673-683.
188. Kretzschmar R, Meyer HJ, Teschendorf HJ. Strychnine antagonistic potency of pyrone compounds of the kavaroot (Piper methysticum Forst.). Experientia. 1970;26(3):283-284.
189. Gleitz J, Beile A, Wilkens P, Ameri A, Peters T. Antithrombotic action of the kava pyrone (+)-kavain prepared from Piper methysticum on human platelets. Planta Med. 1997;63(1):27-30.
190. Pittler MH, Ernst E. Kava extract versus placebo for treating anxiety. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2003;(1):CD003383.
191. Boerner RJ, Sommer H, Berger W, Kuhn U, Schmidt U, Mannel M. Kava-Kava extract LI 150 is as effective as Opipramol and Buspirone in generalised anxiety disorder—an 8-week randomized, double-blind multi-centre clinical trial in 129 out-patients. Phytomedicine. 2003;10(suppl 4):38-49.
192. Bodin R, Schneider S, Rekkerth D, Spillane L, Kamali M. Rhabdomyolysis associated with kava ingestion. Am J Emerg Med. 2012; 30(4):635.e1-e3.
193. Spillane PK, Fisher DA, Currie BJ. Neurological manifestations of kava intoxication. Med J Aust. 1997;167(3):172-173.
194. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Kava-Containing Dietary Supplements May Be Associated with Severe Liver Injury. Available at http://www.fda.gov/Food/ResourcesForYou/Consumers/ucm085482.htm. Last accessed June 15, 2016.
195. LaPorte E, Sarris J, Stough C, Scholey A. Neurocognitive effects of kava (Piper methysticum): a systematic review. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2011;26(2):102-111.
196. Bressler R. Herb-drug interactions: interactions between kava and prescription medications. Geriatrics. 2005;60(9):24-25.
197. Ang-Lee MK, Moss J, Yuan CS. Herbal medicines and perioperative care. JAMA. 2001;286(2):208-216.
198. Schulze J, Raasch W, Siegers CP. Toxicity of kava pyrones, drug safety precautions—a case study. Phytomedicine. 2003;10(Suppl 4):68-73.
199. Sarris J, Kavanagh DJ, Byrne G, Bone KM, Adams J, Deed G. The Kava Anxiety Depression Spectrum Study (KADSS): a randomized, placebo-controlled crossover trial using an aqueous extract of Piper methysticum. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2009;205(3):399-407.
200. Mathews JM, Etheridge AS, Black SR. Inhibition of human cytochrome P450 activities by kava extract and kavalactones.Drug Metab Dispos. 2002;30(11):1153-1157.
201. Khanum F, Anilakumar KR, Viswanathan KR. Anticarcinogenic properties of garlic: a review. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2004;44(6):479-488.
202. Agarwal KC. Therapeutic actions of garlic constituents. Med Res Rev. 1996;16(1):111-124.
203. Liu L, Yeh YY. Inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis by organosulfur compounds derived from garlic. Lipids. 2000;35(2):197-203.
204. Ariga T, Seki T. Antithrombotic and anticancer effects of garlic-derived sulfur compounds: a review. Biofactors. 2006;26(2):93-103.
205. Hosono T, Fukao T, Ogihara J, et al. Diallyl trisulfide suppresses the proliferation and induces apoptosis of human colon cancer cells through oxidative modification of beta-tubulin. J Biol Chem. 2005;280(50):41487-41493.
206. Sakamoto K, Lawson LD, Milner JA. Allyl sulfides from garlic suppress the in vitro proliferation of human A549 lung tumor cells. Nutr Cancer. 1997;29(2):152-156.
207. Li Y, Zhang J, Zhang L, Si M, Yin H, Li J. Diallyl trisulfide inhibits proliferation, invasion and angiogenesis of osteosarcoma cells by switching on suppressor micro RNAs and inactivating of Notch-1 signaling. Carcinogenesis. 2013;34(7):1601-1610.
208. Antony ML, Singh SV. Molecular mechanisms and targets of cancer chemoprevention by garlic-derived bioactive compound diallyl trisulfide. Indian J Exp Biol. 2011;49(11):805-816.
209. Silagy C, Neil A. Garlic as a lipid lowering agent––a meta-analysis. J R Coll Physicians Lond. 1994;28(1):39-45.
210. Warshafsky S, Kamer RS, Sivak SL. Effect of garlic on total serum cholesterol a meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med. 1993;119(7 Pt 1):599-605.
211. Stevinson C, Pittler MH, Ernst E. Garlic for treating hypercholesterolemia: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Ann Intern Med. 2000;133(6):420-429.
212. Ackermann RT, Mulrow CD, Ramirez G, Gardner CD, Morbidoni L, Lawrence VA. Garlic shows promise for improving some cardiovascular risk factors. Arch Intern Med. 2001;161(6):813-824.
213. Simons S, Wollersheim H, Thien T. A systematic review on the influence of trial quality on the effect of garlic on blood pressure. Neth J Med. 2009;67(6):212-219.
214. Siegel G, Klüssendorf D. The anti-atheroslerotic effect of Allium sativum: statistics re-evaluated. Atherosclerosis. 2000;150(2): 437-438.
215. Fleischauer AT, Arab L. Garlic and cancer: a critical review of the epidemiologic literature. J Nutr. 2001;131(3S):1032S-1040S.
216. Piscitelli SC, Burstein AH, Welden N, Gallicano KD, Falloon J. The effect of garlic supplements on the pharmacokinetics of saquinavir. Clin Infect Dis. 2002;34(2):234-238.
217. Dietz BM, Mahady GB, Pauli GF, Farnsworth NR. Valerian extract and valerenic acid are partial agonists of the 5-HT5a receptor in vitro. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2005;138(2):191-197.
218. Ortiz JG, Rassi N, Maldonado PM, González-Cabrera S, Ramos I. Commercial valerian interactions with [3H]Flunitrazepam and [3H]MK-801 binding to rat synaptic membranes. Phytother Res. 2006;20(9):794-798.
219. Thomas DR. 5-ht5A receptors as a therapeutic target. Pharmacol Ther. 2006;111(3):707-714.
220. Santos MS, Ferreira F, Cunha AP, Carvalho AP, Riberio CF, Macedo T. Synaptosomal GABA release as influenced by valerian root extract—involvement of the GABA carrier. Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther. 1994;327(2):220-231.
221. Riedel E, Hänsel R, Ehrke G. Inhibition of gamma-aminobutyric acid catabolism by valerenic acid derivatives [Article in German]. Planta Med. 1982;46(12):219-220.
222. Murphy K, Kubin ZJ, Shepard JN, Ettinger RH. Valeriana officinalis root extracts have potent anxiolytic effects in laboratory rats. Phytomedicine. 2010;17(8-9):674-678.
223. Stevinson C, Ernst E. Valerian for insomnia: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials. Sleep Med. 2000;1(2):91-99.
224. Donath F, Quispe S, Diefenbach K, Maurer A, Fietze I, Roots I. Critical evaluation of the effect of valerian extract on sleep structure and sleep quality. Pharmacopsychiatry. 2000;33(2):47-53.
225. Garges HP, Varia I, Doraiswamy PM. Cardiac complications and delirium associated with valerian root withdrawal. JAMA. 1998;280(18):1566-1567.
226. Oxman AD, Flottorp S, Havelsrud K, et al. A televised, web-based randomized trial of an herbal remedy (valerian) for insomnia. PLoS One. 2007;2(10):e1040.
227. Koetter U, Schrader E, Kaufeler R, Brattstrom A. A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, prospective clinical study to demonstrate clinical efficacy of a fixed valerian hops extract combination (Ze 91019) in patients suffering from non-organic sleep disorder. Phytother Res. 2007;21(9):847-851.
228. Tang W, Eisenbrand G. Chinese Drugs of Plant Origin: Chemistry, Pharmacolgy, and Use in Traditional and Modern Medicine. New York, NY: Springer-Verlag; 1992.
229. Tan BKH, Zhang ACY. Andrographis paniculata and the cardiovascular system. In: Packer L, Ong CN, Halliwell B (eds). Herbal and Traditional Medicine: Molecular Aspects of Health. New York, NY: Marcel Dekker Publisher; 2004: 441-456.
230. Coon JT, Ernst E. Andrographis paniculata in the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections: a systematic review of safety and efficacy. Planta Med. 2004;70(4):293-298.
231. Poolsup N, Suthisisang C, Prathanturarug S, Asawamekin A, Chanchareon U. Andrographis paniculata in the symptomatic treatment of uncomplicated upper respiratory tract infection: systematic review of randomized controlled trials. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2004;29(1):37-45.
232. Cáceres DD, Hancke JL, Burgos RA, Sandberg F, Wikman GK. Use of visual analogue scale measurements (VAS) to assess the effectiveness of standardized Andrographis paniculata extract SHA-10 in reducing the symptoms of common cold: a randomized double blind-placebo study. Phytomedicine. 1999;6(4):217-223.
233. Saxena RC, Singh R, Kumar P, et al. A randomized double blind placebo controlled clinical evaluation of extract of Andrographis paniculata (KalmCold) in patients with uncomplicated upper respiratory tract infection. Phytomedicine. 2010;17(3-4):178-185.
234. Calabrese C, Berman SH, Babish JG, et al. A phase I trial of andrographolide in HIV positive patients and normal volunteers. Phytother Res. 2000;14(5):333-338.
235. Gabrielian ES, Shukarian AK, Goukasova GI, et al. A double blind, placebo-controlled study of Andrographis paniculata fixed combination Kan Jang in the treatment of acute upper respiratory tract infections including sinusitis. Phytomedicine. 2002;9(7):589-597.
236. Huntley A, Ernst E. Herbal medicines for asthma: a systematic review. Thorax. 2000;55(11):925-929.
237. Hofmann D, Hecker M, Völp A. Efficacy of dry extract of ivy leaves in children with bronchial asthma: a review of randomized controlled trials. Phytomedicine. 2003;10(2-3):213-220.
238. Hecker M, Runkel F, Voelp A. Treatment of chronic bronchitis with ivy leaf special extract––multicenter post-marketing surveillance study in 1,350 patients [Article in German]. Forsch Komplementarmed Klass Naturheilkd. 2002;9(2):77-84.
239. Fazio S, Pouso J, Dolinsky D, et al. Tolerance, safety and efficacy of Hedera helix extract in inflammatory bronchial diseases under clinical practice conditions: a prospective, open, multicentre postmarketing study in 9657 patients. Phytomedicine. 2009;16(1):17-24.
240. Gaillard Y, Blaise P, Darré A, Barbier T, Pépin G. An unusual case of death: suffocation caused by leaves of common ivy (Hedera helix). Detection of hederacoside C, alpha-hederin, and hederagenin by LC-EI/MS-MS. J Anal Toxicol. 2003;27(4):257-262.
241. Brinker F. Herb contraindications and drug interactions. J Altern Complemnt Med. 2002;8(2):215-217.
242. Gahche J, Bailey R, Burt V, et al. Dietary Supplement Use among U.S. Adults has Increased Since NHANES III (1988–1994). Available at http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/databriefs/db61.htm. Last accessed June 9, 2016.
243. Nahin RL, Barnes PM, Stussman BJ. Expenditures on complementary health approaches: United States, 2012. Natl Health Stat Report. 2016;95:1-11.
244. Bent S. Herbal medicine in the United States: review of efficacy, safety, and regulation. J Gen Intern Med. 2008;23(6):854-859.
245. Hulisz D, Duff C. Assisting seniors with insomnia: a comprehensive approach. US Pharmacist. 2009;34(6):38-43.
246. American Cancer Society. Complementary and Alternative Therapies for Advanced Cancer. Available at http://www.cancer.org/treatment/understandingyourdiagnosis/advancedcancer/advanced-cancer-cam. Last accessed June 9, 2016.
247. Herro E, Jacob SE. Mentha piperita (peppermint). Dermatitis. 2010;21(6):327-329.
248. Kligler B, Chaudhary S. Peppermint oil. Am Fam Physician. 2007;75(7):1027-1030.
249. Capello G, Spezzaferro M, Grossi L, Manzoli L, Marzio L. Peppermint oil (Mintoil) in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: a prospective double blind placebo-controlled randomized trial. Dig Liver Dis. 2007;39(6):530-536.
250. Merat S, Khalili S, Mostajabi P, Ghorbani A, Ansari R, Malekzadeh R. The effect of enteric-coated, delayed-release peppermint oil on irritable bowel syndrome. Dig Dis Sci. 2010;55(5):1385-1390.
251. Heimes K, Hauk F, Verspohl EJ. Mode of action of peppermint oil and (-)-menthol with respect to 5-HT3 receptor subtypes: binding studies, cation uptake by receptor channels and contraction of isolated rat ileum. Phytother Res. 2011;25(5):702-708.
252. Chang HY, Kelly EC, Lembo AJ. Current gut-directed therapies for irritable bowel syndrome. Curr Treat Options Gastroenterol. 2006;9(4):314-323.
253. Heimes K, Hauk F, Verspohl EJ. Mode of action of peppermint oil and (-)-menthol with respect to 5-HT3 receptor subtypes: binding studies, cation uptake by receptor channels and contraction of isolated rat ileum. Phytother Res. 2011;25(5):702-708.
254. Papathanasopoulos A, Rotondo A, Janssen P, et al. Effect of acute peppermint oil administration on gastric sensorimotor function and nutrient tolerance in health. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2013;25(4):e263-e271.
255. Alam MS, Roy PK, Miah AR, et al. Efficacy of peppermint oil in diarrhea predominant IBS: a double blind randomized placebo-controlled study. Mymensingh Med J. 2013;22(1):27-30.
256. Grigoleit HG, Grigoleit P. Pharmacology and preclinical pharmacokinetics of peppermint oil. Phytomedicine. 2005;12(8):612-616.
257. Ruepert L, Quartero AO, de Wit NJ, van der Heijden GJ, Rubin G, Muris JWM. Bulking agents, antispasmodics, and antidepressants for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011;8:CD003460.
258. Campo JV. Coping with ignorance: exploring pharmacologic management for pediatric functional abdominal pain. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2005;41(5):569-574.
259. May B, Köhler S, Schneider B. Efficacy and tolerability of a fixed combination of peppermint oil and caraway oil in patients suffering from functional dyspepsia. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2000;14(12):1671-1677.
260. Madisch A, Holtmann G, Mayr G, Vinson B, Hotz J. Treatment of functional dyspepsia with a herbal preparation: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial. Digestion. 2004;69(1):45-52.
261. Benner MH, Lee HJ. Anaphylactic reaction to chamomile tea. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1973;52(5):307-308.
262. Ottillinger B, Storr M, Malfertheiner P, Allescher HD. STW 5 (Iberogast)—a safe and effective standard in the treatment of functional gastrointestinal disorders. Wien Med Wochenschr. 2013;163(3-4):65-72.
263. Asao T, Mochiki E, Suzuki H, et al. An easy method for the intraluminal administration of peppermint oil before colonoscopy and its effectiveness in reducing colonic spasm. Gastrointest Endosc. 2001;53(2):172-177.
264. Pimentel M, Bonorris GG, Chow EJ, Lin HC. Peppermint oil improves the manometric findings in diffuse esophageal spasm.J Clin Gastroenterol. 2001;33(1):27-31.
265. Hiki N, Kurosaka H, Tatsutomi Y, et al. Peppermint oil reduces gastric spasm during upper endoscopy: a randomized, double-blind, double-dummy controlled trial. Gastrointest Endosc. 2003;57(4):475-482.
266. Mizuno S, Kato K, Ono Y, et al. Oral peppermint oil is a useful antispasmodic for double-contrast barium meal examination.J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006;21(8):1297-1301.
267. Yamamoto N, Nakai Y, Sasahira N, et al. Efficacy of peppermint oil as an antispasmodic during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006;21(9):1394-1398.
268. Ding M, Leach M, Bradley H. The effectiveness and safety of ginger for pregnancy-induced nausea and vomiting: a systematic review. Women Birth. 2013;26(1):e26-e30.
269. Tamir S, Davidovich Z, Attal P, Eliashar R. Peppermint oil chemical burn. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2005;133(5):801-802.
270. Vermaat H, van Meurs T, Rustemeyer T, Bruynzeel DP, Kirtschig G. Vulval allergic contact dermatitis due to peppermint oil in herbal tea. Contact Dermatitis. 2008;58(6):364-365.
271. Madisch A, Holtmann G, Mayr G, Vinson B, Hotz J. Treatment of functional dyspepsia with a herbal preparation: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial. Digestion. 2004;69(1):45-52.
272. Nair B. Final report on the safety assessment of Mentha piperita (peppermint) oil, Mentha piperita (peppermint) leaf extract, Mentha piperita (peppermint) leaf, and Mentha piperita (peppermint) leaf water. Int J Toxicol. 2001;20(suppl 3):61-73.
273. Scientific Committee on Food. Opinion of the Scientific Committee on Food on Pulegone and Menthofuran. Available at http://ec.europa.eu/food/fs/sc/scf/out133_en.pdf. Last accessed June 9, 2016.
274. Tamir S, Davidovich Z, Attal P, Eliashar R. Peppermint oil chemical burn. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2005;133(5):801-802.
275. Micklefield G, Jung O, Greving I, May B. Effects of intraduodenal application of peppermint oil (WS(R) 1340) and caraway oil (WS(R) 1520) on gastroduodenal motility in healthy volunteers. Phytother Res. 2003;17(2):135-140.
276. Goerg KJ, Spilker T. Effect of peppermint oil and caraway oil on gastrointestinal motility in healthy volunteers: a pharmacodynamic study using simultaneous determination of gastric and gall-bladder emptying and orocaecal transit time. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2003;17(3):445-451.
277. Chrubasik S, Pittler MH, Roufogalis BD. Zingiberis rhizoma: a comprehensive review on the ginger effect and efficacy profiles. Phytomedicine. 2005;12(9):684-701.
278. Kraft K. Erkrankungen der Haut (II). Diseases of the skin: other eczema types, acne and pruritus. Z Phytotherapie. 2007;28(3):129-133.
279. Grzanna R, Lindmark L, Frondoza CG. Ginger: an herbal medicinal product with broad anti-inflammatory actions. J Med Food. 2005;8(2):125-132.
280. Casterline Cl. Allergy to chamomile tea. JAMA. 1980;4:330-331.
281. Kraft K. Erkrankungen der Haut (II). Z Phytotherapie. 2007;28(4):178-180.
282. Aggag ME, Yousef RT. Study of antimicrobial activity of chamomile oil. Planta Med. 1972;22:140-144.
283. Awad R, Levac D, Cybulska P, Merali Z, Trudeau VL, Arnason JT. Effects of traditionally used anxiolytic botanicals on enzymes of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) system. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2007;85(9):933-942.
284. Ross SM. An integrative approach to eczema (atopic dermatitis). Holist Nurs Pract. 2003;17:56-62.
285. Craker LE. Herb, Spices, and Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture, and Pharmacology. Vol 1. Phoenix, AZ: Oryx Press; 1986.
286. White B. Ginger: an overview. Am Fam Physician. 2007;75(11):1689-1691.
287. Carnat A, Carnat AP, Fraisse D, Ricoux L, Lamaison JL. The aromatic and polyphenolic composition of Roman camomile tea. Fitoterapia. 2004;75:32-38.
288. Mayo Clinic. Soy (Glycine max): Dosing. Available at http://www.mayoclinic.org/drugs-supplements/soy/dosing/hrb-20060012. Last accessed June 15, 2016.
289. National Toxicology Program. NTP Brief on Soy Infant Formula, September 16, 2010. Available at http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/ntp/ohat/genistein-soy/soyformulaupdt/finalntpbriefsoyformula_9_20_2010.pdf. Last accessed June 9, 2016.
290. Krebs EE, Ensrud KE, MacDonald R, Wilt TJ. Phytoestrogens for treatment of menopausal symptoms: a systematic review. Obstet Gynecol. 2004;104(4):824-836.
291. Geller SE, Studee L. Botanical and dietary supplements for menopausal symptoms: what works, what does not. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2005;14(7):634-649.
292. Lethaby AE, Brown J, Marjoribanks J, Kronenberg F, Roberts H, Eden J. Phytoestrogens for vasomotor menopausal symptoms. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007;(4):CD001395.
293. Gerritsen M, Carley WW, Ranges GE, et al. Flavonoids inhibit cytokine-induced endothelial cell adhesion protein gene expression. Am J Pathol. 1995;147:278-292.
294. Sacks FM, Lichtenstein A, Van Horn L, Harris W, Kris-Etherton P, Winston M; American Heart Association Nutrition Committee. Soy protein, isoflavones, and cardiovascular health: an American Heart Association science advisory for professionals from the nutrition committee. Circulation. 2006;113(7):1034-1044.
295. Ma DF, Qin LQ, Wang PY, Katoh R. Soy isoflavone intake increases bone mineral density in the spine of menopausal women: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Clin Nutr. 2008;27(1):57-64.
296. Wong WW, Lewis RD, Steinberg FM, et al. Soy isoflavone supplementation and bone mineral density in menopausal women: a 2-y multicenter clinical trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;90(5):1433-1439.
297. Koukourakis GV, Kelekis N, Kouvaris J, Beli IK, Kouloulias VE. Therapeutics interventions with anti-inflammatory creams in post-radiation acute skin reactions: a systematic review of most important clinical trials. Recent Pat Inflamm Allergy Drug Discov. 2010;4(2):149-158.
298. Amsterdam JD, Shults J, Soeller I, Mao JJ, Rockwell K, Newberg AB. Chamomile (Matricaria recutita) may provide antidepressant activity in anxious, depressed humans: an exploratory study. Altern Ther Health Med. 2012;18(5):44-49.
299. Messina M, McCaskill-Stevens W, Lampe JW. Addressing the soy and breast cancer relationship: review, commentary, and workshop proceedings. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2006;98(18):1275-1284.
300. National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health. Herbs at a Glance: Soy. Available at https://nccih.nih.gov/health/soy/ataglance.htm. Last accessed June 17, 2016.
301. Anderson C, Lis-Balchin M, Kirk-Smith M. Evaluation of massage with essential oils on childhood atopic eczema. Phytother Res. 2000;14:452-456.
302. National Institutes of Health Office of Dietary Supplements. Dietary Supplements. Available at https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/DietarySupplements-HealthProfessional/. Last accessed June 9, 2016.
303. U.S. Pharmacopeial Convention. USP Dietary Supplement Standards. Available at http://www.usp.org/dietary-supplements/overview. Last accessed June 9, 2016.
304. Tan MS, Yu JT, Tan CC, et al. Efficacy and adverse effects of ginkgo biloba for cognitive impairment and dementia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Alzheimers Dis. 2015;43(2):589-603.
305. Gui QF, Xu ZR, Xu KY, Yang YM. The efficacy of ginseng-related therapies in type 2 diabetes mellitus: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis. Medicine (Baltimore). 2016;95(6):e2584.
306. Guercio V, Galeone C, Turati F, La Vecchia C. Gastric cancer and allium vegetable intake: a critical review of the experimental and epidemiologic evidence. Nutr Cancer. 2014;66(5):757-773.
307. Raghu R, Lu KH, Sheen LY. Recent research progress on garlic (dà suàn) as a potential anticarcinogenic agent against major digestive cancers. J Tradit Complement Med. 2012;2(3):192-201.
308. Sarris J, Byrne GJ. A systematic review of insomnia and complementary medicine. Sleep Med Rev. 2011;15(2):99-106.
309. Gharib M, Samani LN, Panah ZE, Naseri M, Bahrani N, Kiani K. The effect of valeric on anxiety severity in women undergoing hysterosalpingography. Glob J Health Sci. 2015;7(3):358-363.
310. Borrelli F, Capasso R, Aviello G, Pittler MH, Izzo AA. Effectiveness and safety of ginger in the treatment of pregnancy-induced nausea and vomiting. Obstet Gynecol. 2005;105:849-856.
311. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Statement from Susan Mayne, Ph.D., on Proposal to Revoke Health Claim that Soy Protein Reduces Risk of Heart Disease. Available at https://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm582744.htm. Last accessed November 2, 2017.
Evidence-Based Practice Recommendations Citations
1. American Psychiatric Association. Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Patients with Major Depressive Disorder. 3rd ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association; 2010. Summary retrieved from National Guideline Clearinghouse at http://www.guideline.gov/content.aspx?id=24158. Last accessed June 22, 2016.
2. Greenlee H, Balneaves LG, Carlson LE, et al. Clinical practice guidelines on the use of integrative therapies as supportive care in patients treated for breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst Monographs. 2014;2014(50):346-358. Summary retrieved from National Guideline Clearinghouse at http://www.guideline.gov/content.aspx?id=49481. Last accessed June 22, 2016.
3. Snellman L, Adams W, Anderson G, et al. Diagnosis and Treatment of Respiratory Illness in Children and Adults. Bloomington, MN: Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement; 2013. Summary retrieved from National Guideline Clearinghouse at http://www.guidelines.gov/content.aspx?id=43792. Last accessed June 22, 2016.
4. Pittler MH, Ernst E. Kava extract for treating anxiety. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2003;(1):CD003383. Abstract available at http://www.cochrane.org/CD003383/DEPRESSN_kava-extract-for-treating-anxiety. Last accessed June 22, 2016.
5. Qaseem A, Fihn SD, Dallas P, et al. Management of stable ischemic heart disease: summary of a clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians/American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association/American Association for Thoracic Surgery/Preventive Cardiovascular Nurses Association/Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Ann Intern Med. 2012;157(10):735-743. Summary retrieved from National Guideline Clearinghouse at at http://www.guideline.gov/content.aspx?id=39254. Last accessed June 22, 2016.